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Chemical composition analysis of the material using optical emission spectrometry shows the presence of Cr, Ni, and Mo in the material. Figure 3 presents the chemical composition of the material. Chromium is present in a range of approximately 0.6–1.4 wt %. Nickel is in the range of approximately 0.8–1.3 wt %. A small amount of molybdenum is present in the material. These chemical compositions are consistent with a typical austenitic stainless steel grade. The chemical composition of the material is given in Table 2. The main chemical composition is within the standard ranges for austenitic stainless steel grade. The analysis shows a low carbon (C) content of 0.05 wt % which is typical for stainless steel grades. Low carbon content is typical to austenitic stainless steel grades. There is no sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), or nitrogen (N) in the chemical composition of the material. Mechanical properties of the material are given in Table 3. The hardness of the material is measured by the Rockwell C hardness testing method using the standard Rockwell C hardness testing technique according to ASTM E-18. The fracture toughness of the material is measured by the Vickers hardness testing method. The material has a low fracture toughness of approximately 0.5 MPa.m0.5.
The macro- and microstructure of the material match well to the standard classification and properties of austenitic stainless steel grade. The hardness and fracture properties are excellent with the exception of low fracture toughness.
The results of the study revealed that the mechanical properties of the air-cooled austenitic stainless steel are significantly inferior to those of the water-cooled stainless steel. The fracture of the air-cooled austenitic stainless steel is brittle, as it is characterized by a lack of dimples on the fracture surface. The material's microstructure consists of hard martensite, the carbides of Fe, Ti, V, Cr, C, and Co are distributed throughout the material, and recrystallization is not observed. The carbides serve as stress concentrators during deformation and cause martensite formation. The hardness of the air-cooled austenitic stainless steel is low, less than Hγ11. The air-cooled austenitic stainless steel is brittle, crack-free, and ductile. In contrast, the water-cooled austenitic stainless steel is brittle, but a lot of dimples are observed on its fracture surface. The microstructure consists of the martensitic phase, and the carbides are distributed throughout the material. But the carbides are not as large as those of the air-cooled austenitic stainless steel. The hardness of the water-cooled austenitic stainless steel is higher than Hγ14. 827ec27edc